31 January 2015

Life History of the Common Four Ring

Life History of the Common Four Ring (Ypthima huebneri )

Butterfly Biodata:
Genus: Ypthima Hübner, 1818
Species: huebneri Kerby, 1871
Wingspan of Adult Butterfly: 30-35mm
Caterpillar Local Host Plant: Ottochloa nodosa (Poaceae).

Physical Description of Adult Butterfly:
The adults are typically small as compared to other Ypthima spp. present in Singapore. On the upperside, the wings are greyish brown with a moderately large, bi-pupilled, yellow-ringed, subapical ocellus on the forewing, and two yellow-ringed ocelli in spaces 1b and 2 on the hindwing. The male has a greyish black  sex brand in the distal area of the forewing. On the underside, both wings are pale greyish to bluff brown and are traversed by numerous fine dark brown striae. The forewing has a large, bi-pupilled, yellow-ringed, subapical ocellus. The hindwing has four yellow-ringed ocelli in spaces 1b, 2, 3 and 6 with the one in space 1b bi-pupilled.

A sun-bathing male Common Four Ring showing its upperside.

A sun-bathing female Common Four Ring showing its upperside.

Field Observations of Butterfly Behaviour:
The Common Four Ring is moderately common in Singapore, and is mostly sighted in localized areas within the nature reserve. Adults are usually observed flying low among vegetation in and around grassy patches on open areas. As with other Satyrinae members, the adults have a feeble flight. They typically fly in an erratic and jerky manner as their wings are closed for a relatively long period during flights. In sunny conditions, the adults have the tendency to sun-bath with fully open wings.